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Komunizem v glasbi

20. april 2008 ob 10:01 | Slavoj Žižek |

Si je mogoče zamisliti večji kontrast od tistega med nežno-melanholičnimi klavirskimi komadi Erika Satieja in univerzumom komunizma? S slednjim navadno povezujemo nasilne propagandne komade in refrene ali pa bombastične kantate, ki slavijo državne dogodke in vodje – in ali ni Satie s tega vidika samo utelešenje “meščanskega individualizma”?

Je dejstvo, da je bil Satie v dvajsetih letih 20. stoletja ne le član novo konstituirane Francoske komunistične partije, temveč tudi član njenega Centralnega komiteja, potemtakem gola osebna idiosinkrazija ali provokacija? Prvo presenečenje je, da je še en vzor francoske “meščanske” zadržanosti, namreč Maurice Ravel, v protest zoper odnos Francije do Sovjetske zveze zavrnil članstvo v Académie française; nato pa pričel z muziciranjem severnoafriških protestnih pesmi zoper francosko kolonialno oblast. Glasba, s katero se Ravel približa Satiejevemu glasbenemu komunizmu, ni Bolero, ampak njegova v svojem odporu boleče lepa komorna glasba.

Kaj pa, če je zato, da bi dojeli najelementarnejšo idejo komunizma, treba pozabiti na zunaj-romantične izbruhe strasti in si zamisliti čistost minimalističnega reda, ki ga vzdržuje nežna, povsem prosto naložena in sprejeta disciplina? Spomnimo se Brechtove “Hvalnice komunizmu” (“Lob des Kommunismus”) iz njegove Matere, ki jo je v zelo satiejevskem razpoloženju uglasbil Hans Eisler: je mehka, nežna in intimna, brez vsake pompoznosti – in ali Brechtove besede ne dejansko zvenijo kot opis Satiejeve glasbe? “On je razumen, vsakdo ga razume. […] On ni nobena norost, ampak njen konec. On ni uganka, temveč rešitev. On je enostavnost, ki jo je težko doseči.”

Satie je uporabljal izraz “pohištvena glasba (musique d’ameublement)”, s čimer je namigoval na to, da nekatera njegova dela delujejo kot glasba za ozadje, namenjena ustvarjanju vzdušja. Četudi se zdi, da to kaže v smer komercialne ambientalne glasbe (“Muzak”), pa Satie s tem meri na njeno natančno nasprotje: na glasbo, ki subvertira vrzel, ki ločuje figuro od ozadja – če zares prisluhnemo njegovi glasbi, “slišimo ozadje”. To je primer egalitarnega komunizma v glasbi: glasba, ki poslušalčevo pozornost preusmeri od velike Téme k njenemu nevidnemu ozadju, na enak način kot komunistična teorija in politika našo pozornost preusmerita od velikih Herojev k silnemu delu in trpljenju nevidnih navadnih ljudi.

Nič čudnega torej, da je bil John Cage, ključna figura glasbene avantgarde 20. stoletja, čigar obravnava minimalistične dialektike zvoka in tišine je primerljiva le še z Webernovo, velik občudovalec Satieja. Ločuje ju le drobna, toda ključna razlika: za Satieja je glasba del zvokov iz okolja, medtem ko je glasba za Cagea hrup iz okolja. Tu je Cageova poslednja sodba o Satieju: “Ne gre za vprašanje Satiejeve relevance. On je nepogrešljiv.”

Slavoj Žižek

Satie Gymnopédies - 1. Lent Et Douloureux, Michel Legrand

Prevedel Simon Hajdini, opremil Jonas Žnidaršič

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