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Komponiranje kot dejanje etične zvestobe

16. marec 2008 ob 9:28 | Slavoj Žižek |

Vinko Globokar je pričel s polno uveljavitvijo glasbenega materiala v njegovi avtonomiji – v tem je srž njegove ponovne obuditve edinstvenega postopka simultanega dihanja in igranja oboe (zajemanja sape in pihanja), tako da lahko zvok traja preko ene minute: »Če smo primorani tako dolgo poslušati en sam ton, nenadoma pričnemo slišati neslutene reči, zelo dolgo prisluškujemo enemu samemu elementu.« Tako dobimo neke vrste glasbeni ekvivalent anamorfoze v slikarstvu ali raztegnjenih kadrov pri Tarkovskem. Tisto kar prežema filme Tarkovskega, je težka zemeljska gravitacija, za katero se zdi, da pritiska na sam čas, s čimer proizvede učinek časovne anamorfoze in razpotegne trajanje časa daleč onstran tistega, kar se nam zdi ustrezno z vidika pogojev pripovednega toka. Ta razvlečen čas pripada vmesni domeni, katere vizualni ekvivalent so nemara razvlečeni madeži, ki »so« rumeno nebo pri poznem van Goghu ali pa voda in trava pri Munchu: ta unheimlich »masivnost« ne pripada niti neposredni materialnosti barvnih madežev niti materialnosti naslikanih objektov – pripada neke vrste vmesni spektralni domeni tistega, kar je Schelling poimenoval geistige Körperlichkeit, »duhovna telesnost«.

Toda Globokar se je pričel sredi sedemdesetih let zavedati, da je to potapljanje v avtonomijo čistega zvoka slepa ulica, neke vrste glasbena trda pornografija. Da bi se tej slepi ulici izognil, je ponovno uveljavil socio-ideološki impulz, ki učinkuje iz notranjosti procesa komponiranja: »Zame je glasba vselej neka posledica. Nastane na temelju ideje, vprašanja, skrbi, na temelju nekega problema ali dogajanja, vse to se sprva nahaja zunaj glasbe. Etika določa estetiko, vsaj spočetka.« Pojem »posledice« je ključen: prava domena umetnikovega ustvarjanja je domena zvestobe etičnemu srečanju ali odločitvi.

Ta vrnitev k družbeni razsežnosti ni zunanja glasbenemu materialu, ampak vpisana v samo njegovo mrežo formalnih relacij. Globokar je v intervjuju z Arminom Köhlerjem o »Množici, oblasti in posamezniku« (»Masse, Macht und Individuum«) izpostavil, da se ta konstelacija treh terminov neposredno zrcali v treh skupinah glasbenikov, ki izvajajo komad: v prvi skupini enaindvajsetih, ki med seboj komunicirajo na neorganiziran način (»množica«); v sedemdeset-članskem orkestru, ki svoj del izvaja v hierarhičnem redu pod vodstvom dirigenta (»oblast«); in v štirih solistih, ki so v interakciji in niso enostavno »posamezniki«, saj je njihova interakcija zametek novega kolektiva. In, kot je izpostavil Globokar, prisoten je še četrti element, elektronske orgle, katerih zvok pomeni kontinuiteto neuničljivega Življenja. Danes ima to »čisto življenje« natančen politični ekvivalent v figuri homo sacer, v tistih, ki so izključeni iz političnega simbolnega reda in zreducirani na golo življenje.

Globokar torej ne predlaga nove različice stare dolgočasne opozicije med posameznikom in množico, teme individuuma, ki je »zatiran« s strani množice itd., ampak matrico štirih modalitet so-bivanja, družbenosti, ki določajo današnje življenje: neorganizirano mnoštvo (potrošnikov ali udeležencev v blagovni menjavi, na primer); množica, ki jo vodi Vodja; združba posameznikov, ki so zreducirani na golo življenje, na objekte družbene administracije (eksemplarični primer je koncentracijsko taborišče); in končno, možnost novega avtentičnega kolektiva.

Slavoj Žižek

Vinko Globokar, Improvizacija

Prevedel Simon Hajdini, uredil Jonas Žnidaršič

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